Sometimes you have a long sequence you want to break into smaller sized chunks. This is generally because you want to use some downstream process that can only handle so much data at a time. This is common in stochastic gradient descent in deep learning where you are constrained by the memory on the GPU. But this is also useful for API calls that can take a list, but can't handle all the data at once. Or for processing large datasets in batches without exhausting memory, potentially feeding them to other processes.
For example suppose we have the sequence
seq = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and we want to batch it up in size 3.
Then we expect the result
[[1,2,3], [4,5,6], ].
This is straightforward for a list
[seq[i:i+size] for i in range(0, len(seq), size)]
However this requires knowing the length of the sequence, which we can't do for a generator. Then we need a bit more code to track how much of the sequence has been consumed.
def minibatch(seq, size): items =  for x in seq: items.append(x) if len(items) >= size: yield items items =  if items: yield items
Finally you may need to pad the last item so it's the same size as the other batches.
[[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7, None, None]].
While it would be easy to update the code above to handle this in the last yield, conceptually this is a separate function.
def pad(items, value, length): return items + [value] * (length - len(items))
So for example
pad(, None, 3) is
[7, None, None].
Then you could modify the minibatch function to use the
pad function in the final
Another approach would be to do it with function composition:
def minibatch_pad(seq, size, pad_value): return map(lambda x: pad(x, pad_value, size), minibatch(seq, size))
This is actually a really bad idea in Python. The biggest reason is if there is a problem it's very hard to follow the stack trace. While this kind of solution would be common in a lisp, it's quite uncommon in Python for this reason. Less importantly it's a little bit less computationally efficient.
For completeness here is the padding solution.
def minibatch_pad(seq, size, pad_value): items =  for x in seq: items.append(x) if len(items) >= size: yield items items =  if items: yield pad(items, size, pad_value)