You've got a couple of groups and you want to get every possible combination of them. This is called the Cartesian Product of the groups. There are standard ways of doing this in R and Python.

## Python: List Comprehensions

Concretely we've got (in Python notation) the vectors `x = [1, 2, 3]`

and `y = [4, 5]`

and we want to get all possible pairs: [(1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4), (1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5)]`.
The "pythonic" way to do this is with a list comprehension:

`[(x_, y_) for x_ in x for y_ in y]`

Another possibility is to use `itertools.product`

which is especially useful for a large number of lists.

## R: Expand.grid

In R we can use `expand.grid`

to get a `data.frame`

of all pairs:

`expand.grid(x=x, y=y)`

In this expression the `x`

and `y`

to the left of the `=`

sign are the names of the columns in the dataframe.
I find this really useful when creating plots of functions with `ggplot2`

to try every possible combination of parameters.
You can also do this manually using `rep`

; for example:

`data.frame(x=rep(x, length(y)), y=rep(y, each=length(x)))`

## Python: More Complex List Comprehensions

What if we have a slightly harder problem: there's another vector `z = [6, 7]`

and we want to take every aligned pair from `y`

and `z`

and combine it with every possible `x`

.
So the output should be `[(1, 4, 6), (2, 4, 6), (3, 4, 6), (1, 5, 7), (2, 5, 7), (3, 5, 7)]`

.
This is straightforward with list comprehensions by combining `y`

and `z`

with zip:

`[(x_, y_, z_) for x_ in x for y_, z_ in zip(y, z)]`

This is one of the strengths of Python list comprehensions, it's easy to extend with different variables and with functions acting on those variables.

## R: tidyr expand

I don't know how to do this harder task in R with `expand.grid`

, and so I would have to fallback to the long way with `rep`

.
This would be

`data.frame(x=rep(x, length(y)), y=rep(y, each=length(x)), z=rep(z, each=length(x)))`

This gets quite tedious to write!

However there are neat ways to do this with the tidyr package, and in particular with the `expand`

function.
You can solve it like this:

`expand(data.frame(y=y, z=z), x, nesting(y, z)`

This gets all combinations of `x`

, `y`

, and `z`

, providing that the pairs `y`

and `z`

are in the `data.frame`

from the first argument.

Note that `expand`

is *not* referentially transparent, and the variables rely on their names in the data frame (as is typical of tidyverse functions).
For example `expand(data.frame(y=z, z=y), x, nesting(y, z)`

will reverse the order of the last two columns.